It’s that time of year again, huzzah! After being blown to bits on Monday (thanks Imogen), yesterday’s calm and sunshine was very welcome, and just the right incentive to rebuild the hot bed which I trialled last year. The idea behind this hot bed is to provide some much-needed heat for sowing seeds that need it, ie peppers, chillies and tomatoes, in order to get them going early and make the most of the growing season.
So I pulled the hot bed three-sided frame back into the Little Tunnel, and started off with a layer of semi-rotted manure from the outdoor piles of horse manure, full of lovely earthworms, in order to boost activity in the tunnel as a whole, and provide what feels like a good base of beneficial organisms for the hot bed. Then I layered on three wheelbarrow-loads of fresh stable manure (a combination of straw, shavings, hay, horse poo and pee) at a time, before drenching it in rainwater, and then layering on another three barrow-loads and watering again – up to a total of 12 barrow-loads, which brought it right up to the top of the approx 1m x 1.5m x 1m frame. I’ve turbo-screwed in the thin front for the time being, which will be easy enough to take out and turn or jiggle the heap to kickstart some more heat in a week or so; and also to take out the frame at the end of the spring and spread the remaining composted manure around the tunnels.
I’m using an old salvaged door as the top, and will wait until the initial high temperatures of 70C+ drop down in a day or two (this type of ‘hot’ aerobic composting reaches high temperatures quickly and kills pathogens, producing composted manure in just a few weeks if done right); before sowing & putting the seed trays on top. The manure pile temperature started off at 10C, but was starting to rise when I left yesterday, so will be well on the way to a toasty tunnel now! This trapped warmth should also help the beetroot get going that I’ve recently drilled in the other part of the tunnel.
It seems like ages ago, but Bath & Bristol Organic Growers (BABOG) met up at Kensons Farm near Salisbury only a few weeks ago, on Saturday 23rd January, kindly hosted by Hugh Collins. A good turnout, we all met at the Veg Shed shop, well stocked even in January, then moved onto the propagation area and polytunnels. Hugh grows most crops for several local weekly markets, but also does some wholesale – especially potatoes, onions and asparagus. We checked out his new system for aerating the stored onions to prevent rotting, and also the benenfits of dig vs no-dig beds in the polytunnels.
Hugh is also taking on another Future Growers trainee this season, and we swapped experiences and recommendations on volunteers vs waged labour. After admiring his many brassicas standing well in the field, and checking out the leeks and new asparagus beds, it was time to head to another barn for a look at Hugh’s extensive machinery collection.
After checking out his root lifters and other tractor-mounted tools, we headed inside for a welcome hot cuppa and homemade cake; along with chats on the merits of the Biodynamic seed sowing calendar, best varieties of crops, the weather and green manures. Thanks to Hugh for a very informative meeting; any volunteers for the next BABOG in spring please get in touch!
Another week, another conference: however the Organic Research Centre’s Organic Producer Conference is usually the most directly useful and practical conference for farmers and growrs, so definitely worth attending. After helping put up the Organic Growers’ Alliance stall in the lobby of the Novotel, Bristol on Wednesday morning, and catching up with lots of old friends, it was time for the plenary session, looking at common ground. The organic tradition can sometimes seem (or used to seem at least) rather inward-looking and defensive (probably partly due to derision and hostility from more chemically-reliant farming traditions); but the emphasis here was working together with all strands of the sustainable farming movement. The panel offered their visions for the future of farming and food, and heard throughts from Christine Gosling, an organic dairy farmer at Berkeley Farm; Phil Jarvis from the Game & Wildllife’ Trust’s Allerton Project; organic farmer Jonty Brunyee from the Pasture-Fed Livestock Association; and organic smallholder Jyoti Fernades from the Landworkers’ Alliance; chaired by Lawrence Woodward, ORC policy advisor. There weren’t necessarily any conclusions reached, but definitely some common goals, and it was a good starting point for the conference.
After lunch I went to the Business Tools and Support for New Entrants session; where Phil Sumption from the ORC introduced a new and free-to-use horticultural costings tool that the ORC have been working on, and which could prove very useful for keeping track of which crops are making money. Tony Little from the Sustainable Farming Consultancy then looked at support mechanisms for conversion to organic, especially financial support; in England converting to organic horiculture could see conversion grants of £400/ha for the first two years, then £200/ha for the next three (Wales has more generous offers). However currently the info from DEFRA is that these payments are based on a minumum claim of £5,000 over five years – which when you do the maths, works out at a minimum acreage of 8.8acres for horticulture (and a higher minimum for grazing/arable), so not suitable for smaller growers (hence the work the Landworkers Alliance is doing to highlight the disparity and unfairness of rewarding larger farms based on size alone, no matter how productive). Ruth West added that the A-Team challenge may be able to offer support to some small enterprises. Lastly Laura Creen, fellow ex-Future Grower and grower at School Farm CSA had sent in a video presentation since she was ill on the day and unable to attend. She told us the story of the farms she’s worked on; and also recommended Quick Book Online for easy accounting, as well as calling in concilliations services to help talk through issue with colleagues and business members.
After a tea break, I chose Tackling the Challenges of Organic Fruit & Viticulture: kicked off with a talk by Martin Soble of Carey Organic on the things he’d do differently when starting a top fruit orchard. As well as choosing varieties carefully for pest and disease resistance (especially scab), Martin also recommends choosing early and late varieties, to make the most of the extended season commercially. Also choosing varieties that have a consistent and even size is invaluable; and he also recommends growing well-known varieties such as Bramley for the best saleability options. He also suggests that rootstock charts be taken with a pinch of salt: some ‘dwarfing’ stocks can be very vigorous, so always best to go and have a look at some examples in the field if possible. He would prune harder, and earlier, with three of four big cuts a year, and thinning more. Next up was Will Davenport from Davenport Vineyards, who explained the problems of growing grapes organically. Weeds seemed to be the main challenge, requiring cultivations around the vines, and mowing the strips between rows in summer, introducing sheep in winter to keep grass down, which didn’t seem to damamge established vines. Ploughing under pans is needed every so often next to the vines to alleviate compaction, and Will is looking into the possibility of using trefoil help manage the weeds. He also recommended producing a dry white wine blend, since many new English vineyards are looking into sparkling white wines, which are very difficult to get right at an affordable price. Lucius Tamm from FiBL then gave us an update on the CO-FREE project, working with many partners across Europe to look at methods of reducing copper use in fruit production. He suggested that there is no silver bullet as a copper alternative; but that several management tactics can help reduce the use of copper.
This should have been the end of the day, but I had organised a fringe session on skilled workers, apprentices & volunteers, looking at the pros and cons of different types of labour, and how each type might suit various holdings and workers/volunteers. This was a great and varied discussion, much of which will feed into the planned report Future Farmers II: A guide to running a farm-based agroecological traineeship, due to be published in March as a joint collaboration with the OGA, Groundspring, Sustain, the CSA Network and other partners.
The following day started bright and early with a session on protected cropping in organic systems. Rob Meijer from Wageningen UR previewed the results of the Biogreenhouse COST Action, sharing knowledge and best practice on protected cropping. Free booklets on various topics, such as food sprays for predatory mites using pollen, will be available for download from the website in April. Lucia Foresi from Coventry University also presented her piece on environmental imapcts of greenhouse horticulture, part of the COST project. Pete Dollimore from glasshouse specialist growers Hankham Organics then gave us a very useful presentation on encouraging pest predators into your protected cropping spaces; from planting yarrow to encourage an aphid in that only feeds on yarrow, and therefore attracting general aphid predators (such as ladybirds, whose large larvae can eat 50 aphid/day) to then move onto other aphid and pests; to leaving coriander to flower next to brassicas to encourage hoverflies for aphid and parasitic wasps which feed off cabbage white caterpillars. Pete plants low-growing poached egg plants to attract such predators among the cabbages too, and has seen a marked improvment; he also recommends growing calendula, borage, herbs and golden rod inside protected cropping spaces.
After a tea break, I chaired the session on Customer Satisfaction: Ensuring Consistent Supply and Quality of Organic Food, which is key to any businesses success. Alan Schofield (Growing With Nature and chair of the OGA) took us through his successional cropping plan, highlighting the importance of consistent supply and good quality produce, and building in risk-management to your plans, sowing and planting a few extra of each crop, just in case. From the 1st of February, he sows Pixie cabbage, rocket, chard, spinach, spring onions, leaf beet and lettuce weekly for that month; then fortnightly in March and April onwards until late summer, along with carrots, beetroot, kohl rabi and fennel. Roger Hitchings (RMH Consulting) gave a presentation showing the importance of soil for quality and predictable/consistent crops, and how soil can be improved and managed well to get the best from your land. Adam York from Glebelands Market Garden then gave a talk on grading and presentation, and pointed out that poorly harested or kept veg brings the names of organic food down for all of us – so if you see some bad produce or poor displays, point them out, and make sure your own displays are up to scratch! He offered several tips for keeping harvesting times down and cooling produce in order to maintain quality and shelf-life, including the nice low-tech version of cold wet towels over produce when picking in the summer. An engaging discussion followed, with the room full of growers sharing tips and stories; then sadly the session time was over and we had to head for a quick lunch before the closing plenary.
This closing session looked at how change can happen globally, so much of the talks and discussion was more about policy than immediate practical stuff we can implement at home; however it is important to keep this bigger picture in mind – not least becuase the next time you write to your MP or vote in an election or referendum, these kind of sessions helps explain what it is you’re voting for.